All posts by Bobby Hood

“Moot Point” vs. “Mute Point”

Often in print (or on Facebook) you will see people refer to a mute point, when they really mean a moot point. This common grammar mistake is referred to as a malapropism (the use of the wrong word in a common idiom), and is also an eggcorn (similar to free reign vs.free rein).

The word moot has caused lots of confusion over the years. Originally, a moot argument described any argument that was debatable — for which there was no clear answer — and students of debates would discuss such arguments in a moot. Over the years, since such discussions were generally about unsolvable problems and not actually deciding anything, the word moot slowly evolved to its modern usage to describe a discussion that is irrelevant.

So, the word moot now means the opposite of what it originally meant, and it’s too late to fix it. If you try to use the word moot in its original sense, you’ll simply confuse people. As a result, it’s probably just best to avoid using the word altogether.

However, you can’t avoid running across the common usage today: moot point refers to a point of discussion that has been made irrelevant (the time for decision is already past, or any decision on the point would be overridden by some other factor).

A “mute point” is just an understandable mistake — since moot and mute are homophones, or at least almost homophones, one who doesn’t know the word moot may replace it with mute. This mistake is understandable, since if the point were mute, then it would be silent, or of low volume (like a muted trumpet), and so it makes at least a little bit of sense.

A mistake like this is called an eggcornOther examples of eggcorns: “free reign” for “free rein”, “shoe-in” for “shoo-in”, “peak my interest” for “pique my interest”, and so on. Just watch your Facebook wall and you’ll see them flow past every day. These are good examples of errors that, once seen, cannot be “unseen” for the rest of your life.

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, LSAT, MCAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

 

“That” vs. “Which”

The difference between “that” and “which”, and how to choose between them, has been the subject of much debate. It took me a long time to finally understand the distinction, but once you do understand the difference, the clarity of your writing will improve significantly.

You can use this very simple rule of thumb: in most cases, the correct word you want to use to introduce a clause is that (not which), and whenever you use which, it must be preceded by a comma. The choice is between that or “[comma], which” — and if you’re not sure, use that.

So, why is that appropriate in most cases instead of which?  That is used to introduce restrictive clauses: clauses required for the sentence to be grammatically and logically sensible. Which, on the other hand, is used to introduce non-restrictive clauses: clauses that give additional information that is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence.

Consider the following sentence:

  • “My car that is parked out front is the Batmobile.”

In this sentence, the clause “that is parked out front” is restrictive — it helps define “My car” by identifying that although I have more than one car, the one parked out front happens to be the Batmobile.

Compare to this sentence:

  • “My car, which is parked out front, is the Batmobile.”

Notice the difference in meaning? In this sentence, which introduces a non-restrictive clause. This sentence tells you that I own only one car, and it’s the Batmobile. And, incidentally, it’s parked out front, but you didn’t need to know that for the meaning of “My car” to be clear.

There are several ways to make sure you get this right:

  • First, always use a comma before which and never use a comma before that. This will ensure that your reader knows that you intend which to be non-restrictive and that to be restrictive, as they should be.
  • Second, if you’re unsure, use that and not which.
  • Third, try removing the clause from the sentence. If it can be removed from the sentence without changing the logical meaning (if it’s extraneous, additional information), then use which; otherwise, use that.

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to do test prep for any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

 

Math Tricks Prove You Have Famous Ancestors


Everyone’s been fascinated during recent years about delving into their ancestry and family history.

I did a little work on ancestry.com and it wasn’t too hard to trace my ancestry back to some people who fought in the United States Civil War, and then to some who fought in the Revolutionary War, which was pretty cool, since it qualified me to join the Sons of the American Revolution.

But then, I kept going and found that I am, among other things, descended from King Edward III of England and his son, Edward the Black Prince of Wales, and that Geoffrey Chaucer is my 16th great-uncle.

At first, this seemed amazing, and I thought, “Wow! What are the chances of such a thing?”

Actually, using some basic statistics and probability, the chances are very likely that you are related to someone famous from the Middle Ages (about 400 A.D. to 1500 A.D.) or earlier, in whatever region of the world your ancestry comes from. 

As an example, let’s assume you were born in 1980, and that on average, a new generation comes along every 25 years. Then, each of your two ancestors would be descended from two more parents, and so forth. So, a century before, in 1880, that you would have 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 ancestors, or 2 to the 4th power, which would be 16 great-great-grandparents.

Add another hundred years to trace back to 1780, and the number of spots to fill in your family tree would equal 2^8, or 256 potential ancestors.

In 1680, the number of spots to fill would increase to 2^12, or about 4,000 potential ancestors.

In 1580, 2^16 (about 64,000 ancestors)

In 1480, 2^20 (about a million ancestors)

In 1380, 2^24 (about 16 million ancestors)

In 1280, 2^28 (about 250 million ancestors)

Just for fun, go another 50 years to 1230 A.D., making the exponent a nice round 2^30, which is over a billion ancestors.

But in 1230, there were only about 400 million people living on Earth.  What does that mean?

It means that there are LOTS of people over-counted in that family tree, because the lines actually come back together over and over. Not just because second, third, and fourth cousins marry each other — if you go far enough in time, everyone is technically a cousin to everyone else.

So, this means that you are you are descended from a lot of different people by a lot of different lines of inheritance — lots of VERY DISTANT cousins marrying each other — no matter what your ethnic background is.  There are a billion slots that have to be filled in on the ancestral tree, and only 400 million people to put in them, so a lot of people have to be filling multiple slots on your ancestral tree.

Does this mean you are descended from every person who was alive in 1230 A.D.?  No — depending on your ethnic background, your ancestry could be focused on groups in the Americas, or south Africa, or southeast Asia, China, Japan, and so forth, since those groups did not largely mix with other groups worldwide until later in history; and plus, there were many people alive in 1230 A.D. who don’t have living descendants today.

But if you know some of your ancestors were from Europe or around the Mediterranean, then the odds are that anyone who was alive in 1230 A.D., lived in Europe or around the Mediterranean, and has living descendants, is likely one of your ancestors, including all of the Holy Roman Emperors, and the peasants they ruled; William the Conqueror and many of his knights; Lady Godiva; Pope Innocent III; and so on.  Basically, everyone you read about in the history books; the conquerors and the conquered, the famous and the unknown — if they had descendants, there’s a pretty good chance they’re one of your ancestors.

Pretty cool, huh?

Math tricks like this are fun to play with. If you enjoy learning things like this, you might enjoy taking the GMAT or the GRE. Contact me anytime to discuss options for test prep and tutoring on the SAT, ACT, LSAT, GMAT, GRE, and MCAT!

LSAT Logic Games – The “Einstein Puzzle”

An LSAT student of mine alerted me to the Zebra Puzzle, which he found and sent to me. It’s often called “Einstein’s Puzzle”, and it’s said that Einstein wrote it as a child and “claimed that only 2% of the population would be able to solve it.” It was originally published in Life International Magazine on December 17, 1962, and the contents make it unlikely that Einstein was the actual author, but it’s fun anyway! When my student sent it to me, I actually pulled over on the side of the highway and worked it out for 30 minutes at a gas station because it’s such a cool puzzle.  I made a couple of edits, inside brackets, for clarity.  The solution to the puzzle can be found here, but try not to look immediately!

  1. There are five houses [in a row].
  2. The Englishman lives in the red house.
  3. The Spaniard owns the dog.
  4. Coffee is drunk in the green house.
  5. The Ukrainian drinks tea.
  6. The green house is immediately to the right of the ivory house [as viewed from the street].
  7. The Old Gold smoker owns snails.
  8. Kools are smoked in the yellow house.
  9. Milk is drunk in the middle house.
  10. The Norwegian lives in the first house.
  11. The man who smokes Chesterfields lives in the house next to the man with the fox.
  12. Kools are smoked in [a] house next to the house where the horse is kept. [The original puzzle says “the” house, but “a” house is more clear.]
  13. The Lucky Strike smoker drinks orange juice.
  14. The Japanese smokes Parliaments.
  15. The Norwegian lives next to the blue house.

If one resident drinks water, which is it?  If one resident owns a zebra, who is it?

The LSAT includes an Analytical Reasoning section (which we call “Logic Games”) that tests your ability to make deductions and solve problems like the above (but a good deal less complex).  If you like problems like this, you might enjoy LSAT prep and going to law school.

Contact me for information about test prep classes and tutoring, either locally in Austin or online via The Princeton Review’s LiveOnline classrooms!

The “Choosing Among Three Doors” Problem

“On a game show, a new car is hidden behind one of three doors. You choose Door 1. The host opens Door 3 — empty — and gives you the option to change your choice. Would you switch to Door 2 or stick with Door 1?”

This question is often called the “Monty Hall Problem”, after the show “Let’s Make a Deal”, and was discussed in the movie “21”.

The question can be answered using knowledge of basic math probabilities.

Probability is always described as a number between zero (no change of something happening) and one (100% chance of something happening), and is calculated using the formula P(outcome you desire) = \frac{desired}{possible}.

When you make your initial choice between the three doors, the chance is \frac{1}{3} that your choice has the prize behind it. Thus, the probability that you have chosen correctly is \frac{1}{3}, and the probability that you have chosen incorrectly is \frac{2}{3}. So, there is a \frac{2}{3} chance that the car is behind either Door 2 or Door 3.

When the host opens Door 3, revealing that it does not contain the price, he has given you additional information, but the original odds remain the same.  There is now a \frac{1}{3} chance that your original choice (Door 1) was correct (Door 1) and a \frac{2}{3} chance that one of the other doors (now, only Door 2) contains the prize, and you should switch to Door 2.

This requires assuming, of course, that the host always offers the chance to switch and that you can’t gain any information from his behavior.

If it’s difficult to see why this makes sense, imagine the same scenario with a million doors.  You pick Door 1, and the host opens 999,998 other doors, showing them to be empty, leaving only your door and one other door.  Would you switch?  There’s a \frac{1}{1,000,000} chance that you picked the correct door, and a \frac{999,999}{1,000,000} chance that the other remaining door holds the prize.

The GMAT Test includes many questions that test your ability to break down and solve problems involving probability.  If you like problems like this, you might enjoy taking the GMAT and earning an MBA.  Contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for information about classes and tutoring, either locally in Austin or online via The Princeton Review’s LiveOnline classrooms!

Zeugma

Although it’s not tested on standardized tests, and so isn’t directly helpful for test prep, zeugma is a fun grammatical trick to have in your repertoire and a laugh at.

Zeugma (pronounced “zoog-ma”) occurs when one word in a sentence governs the meaning of two or more other words in the sentence and as a result is used in two different senses at once, creating a dissonance that could be considered a form of irony.

Another word often used for this concept is syllepsis, but the distinctions between the two are a subject of much disagreement, so it’s easiest and safest to use zeugma in all cases.

The simplest way to describe zeugma is to show it in action.  The first sentence of this post, for example, uses zeugma: “have in your repertoire” and “have a laugh at” are two different idioms that are not often combined.

Here are some examples from music, literature, and popular culture:

  • “He’s got one hand on the steering wheel, the other on my heart.” (Taylor Swift, “Our Song”)
  • “…both how I’m living and my nose is large” (Digital Underground, “The Humpty Dance”)
  • “There’s people on the street using guns and knives, taking drugs and each others’ lives.” (Flight of the Conchords, “Think About It”)
  • “My teeth and ambitions are bared; be prepared!” (Scar, The Lion King)
  • “She blew my nose and then she blew my mind.” (The Rolling Stones, “Honky Tonk Women”)
  • “You held your breath and the door for me.” (Alanis Morissette, “Head Over Feet”)
  • “You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens, as you see fit.” (Star Trek: The Next Generation, “Angel One”)
  • “You can put me out on the street / put me out with no shoes on my feet / But put me out, put me out, put me out of misery.” (The Rolling Stones, “Beast of Burden”)

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

The “Shared Birthday” Problem

“If a room has 23 people in it, what is the approximate chance that at least one pair of people in the room share the same birthday?” 

This question is similar to GMAT math questions that test your knowledge of probability theory.  It requires too much calculation to actually be used as a GMAT question, but the technique for solving it is exactly the same.

Often, it’s easier to calculate the probability of a set of events NOT happening than it is to calculate the probability of that set of events actually occurring. 

We can use the fact that, for any given set of events, the probability that it WILL occur plus the probability that it will NOT occur equals 1:

  • P (birthday is shared) + P (nobody shares a birthday) = 1

So, since it’s easier to solve for the probability that nobody shares a birthday, we can solve the equation for the probability that there is at least one shared birthday:

  • P (birthday is shared) = 1 – P (nobody shares a birthday)

So, what is the chance that nobody shares a birthday?  

Start with the chances of two people not sharing a birthday.  For the first person chosen, we choose from 365 choices of birthdays available: \frac{365}{365}, which equals a chance of 1.  For the second person, we have 364 remaining birthdays to choose from out of 365:  \frac{364}{365}.  Multiply the two together and you get a chance of \frac{364}{365}, or about 99.7%, that those two people have different birthdays, and \frac{1}{365}, or 0.3%, as the chance that they share a birthday.

For each person added, we have one fewer birthday to choose from (363, 362, 361, etc.) out of the 365 days; multiply them all together to get the result:

  • \frac{365}{365}\frac{364}{365}\frac{363}{365}\frac{362}{365}...\frac{343}{365} =

Do all the painful math (a spreadsheet helps a lot, unless you are a math savant), and you get about 49.3% chance that a birthday is NOT shared; subtract from 100% and you have a 50.7%, or about 1 in 2, chance that a birthday is shared between at least two people in the room.

So, next time you’re at a party and you count 23 people, it’s a fun bet to make that there will be a shared birthday.  32 people brings the odds up to 75%, and 40 people puts it right about at 90%.

(Yes, I know we’re ignoring the poor folks who were born on February 29 and only have a quarter as many birthdays to celebrate as the rest of us, but they change the odds only a tiny amount.)

If you enjoy math problems like this, you would probably enjoy, and do well on, the GMAT test.  Contact Bobby Hood Test Prep and I’d be happy to discuss the various class and tutoring options for the GMAT, both locally in Austin and online through The Princeton Review’s LiveOnline classrooms.

“My friend and I” vs. “Me and my friend”

One mistake many people (not just high school students) commonly make is saying my friend and I when they should say me and my friend, or vice versa.

This becomes such a source of confusion because, as you grow up, parents and teachers constantly correct you when you say “Me and my friend are going to go hang out.”

Well-meaning adults correct you and say, “You mean my friend and I are going to go hang out.” And, as a result, you learn that my friend and I is the correct phrasing in this instance, but you don’t learn in which situations you are supposed to use it.

So, as a result, for fear of correction, you say my friend and I in EVERY situation, rather than just when it is correct. This over-reaction is called “hypercorrection” — correcting an error even when the error isn’t occurring.

My friend and I is the correct phrase when it’s used as the subject of the sentence, but not when it’s the object.  Consider:

  • John and I are going to go hang out.
  • A new friend is coming over to hang out with John and me.

In the second example, since the phrase is the object of a preposition, the correct use is me instead of I.

How can you make sure you don’t repeat this error? Just eliminate the “friend” from the sentence and see how it sounds:  “… hang out with I” or “hang out with me“? Now it’s clear that the latter is correct.

The proper use of I and me is tested on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on standardized tests. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

“Like” vs. “As”

The words like and as are used for comparisons, but people often use the word like for all comparisons, instead of using the appropriate word for each circumstance.

Like is a preposition that should be used to compare two nouns or noun phrases, and is used like an adjective (to modify one noun and show its comparability to another noun.

As, on the other hand, is a conjunction that is used to connect and compare verbs or verb clauses, and is used like an adverb (to describe or compare the manner of an action being taken).

Consider:

  • “To John, his cell phone is like a piece of sports equipment — one day and the screen’s already cracked.”
  • “John treats his cell phone as he treats his baseball glove — toss it on the floor when he’s done. No surprise it’s so scratched up.”

Just remember, whenever you’re comparing actions, use as instead of like:

  • Although many adults think modern pop music is like the product of a marketing committee pandering to poor taste, modern pop music isn’t any worse than it was 30 years ago: young people simply have different tastes from adults, as they always have.

The difference between like and as is tested on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on standardized tests. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

“Who” vs. “Whom”

It’s easy to get who and whom confused, but there is a very easy trick to remember the difference.

Whenever you are about to use who or whom in a sentence, try replacing it with he or him (or they or them), and then use the one that sounds right. 

Who is a nominative pronoun, and acts as the subject in a sentence or clause, while whom is an objective pronoun, and acts as the object in a sentence or clause. But for some reason it’s easier to remember that the same is true of he versus him or they versus them, and naturally choose the right one.

Just remember that the ones with the “m” on the end (whomhimthem) all are used the same way.

Consider:

“Violet Crawley, Dowager Countess of Grantham, is the character who always steals every scene.”

Note that he (or she, in this case) would sound right replacing the who, while him (or her, in this case) would sound wrong.

“Thomas Barrow, on the other hand, is the valet whom I love to hate.”

Note that here, “him I love to hate” works, while “he I love to hate” makes no sense.

It sounds very weird when you replace the word, but it works very well.

There’s an even more important strategy for who and whom on the SAT, ACT, and GMAT, and it’s very simple.

When these tests ask you to choose between who and whom, what answer do you think they expect a low-scoring student to choose? Not what you would think. They will expect that a low-scoring student will choose whom because they don’t know the rules for who and whom and so will choose whom because it sounds more “intellectual.”

Therefore, when in doubt on the SAT, ACT, or GMAT, choose who and you’ll likely get the answer correct.

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, LSAT, MCAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

 

The “Ages of Three Children” Puzzle

A census taker approaches a woman leaning on her gate and asks about her children. She says “I have three children and the product of their ages is 36. The sum of their ages is the number on this gate.” The census taker does some calculation and (correctly) claims not to have enough information. The woman enters her house, but before slamming the door tells the census taker, “I have to see to my eldest child, who is in bed with measles”. The census taker then departs, satisfied, knowing the answer.

This question tests your ability to factor a number.  Whenever a problem discusses “products” or “factors”, or “divisibility” or a “remainder of zero”, that problem likely involves breaking down a number into its factors.

The factors of 36 are 1 and 36; 2 and 18; 3 and 12; 4 and 9; and 6.  (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36). So, each child’s age must be one of those factors, and they must multiply to 36 and add up to the mysterious “number on the gate”, which is not given. 

The possible ages of the children, then, are:

1, 1, and 36 (and the number on the gate would be 38)

1, 2, and 18 (and the number on the gate would be 21)

1, 3, and 12 (and the number on the gate would be 16)

1, 4, and 9 (and the number on the gate would be 14)

1, 6, and 6 (and the number on the gate would be 13)

2, 2, and 9 (and the number on the gate would be 13)

3, 3, and 4 (and the number on the gate would be 10)

Based on the above, the census taker must not have been able to figure out the ages using the number on the gate — so the number on the gate must be 13 (the only sum that could come from more than one sets of factors). So, the census taker knows that the children are either 6-year-old twins and a 1-year old, or else a 9-year-old and 2-year-old twins

Once the woman mentions an “eldest child”, the census taker knows that the correct answer is the 9-year-old and 2-year-old twins.

The GMAT Test includes many questions that test your ability to break down and solve problems involving probability.  If you like problems like this, you might enjoy taking the GMAT and earning an MBA.  Contact me for information about classes and tutoring, either locally in Austin or online via The Princeton Review’s LiveOnline classrooms!

 

The “Dog Running Between Two People” Problem

“Jim & Jan, 600 feet apart, walk toward each other. Jim walks at 100 ft/min, while Jan walks 50 ft/min. Their dog is standing next to Jim, and when Jim starts to walk toward Jan, the dog runs toward Jan at 300 ft/min, then turns around and returns to Jim, and so forth until all three meet.  Approximately how many feet does the dog run?”

The first time you encounter a question like this, it sounds like it involves calculus, or at least a lot of algebra. The GMAT loves including questions like this on its test.

One of the common question types on the GMAT is the “rate problem”: you are given rates for people moving or completing a task. When two people are both doing the same “job” — for instance, walking — you can simply add their rates together to find out their combined speed.

In this case, Jim and Jan are traveling toward each other at a combined rate of 100 ft/min + 50 ft/min = 150 ft/min.  You can use the Distance formula (D = rt) to calculate that the time they will talk is equal to the Distance of 600 feet divided by their combined rate of 150 ft/sec, or 4 minutes. They won’t meet exactly in the middle — Jim will travel 400 feet, while Jan will travel 200 feet — but we don’t need to calculate this to solve the problem.

Calculating the actual distance the dog traveled would be difficult using calculus, and would require using functions and limits. However, if you know that the dog will be traveling at a constant rate of 300 feet per second until they meet, it doesn’t matter in what pattern he runs; he will be running for four minutes exactly, and in those two minutes he will travel 1,200 feet. (Ignoring any time lost for the dog turning around to change direction.)

The moral to this story:  when on a test like the GMAT, don’t fall for the test’s attempt to get you to use difficult calculations.  Look for a simple way to solve the problem; virtually all the problems can be solved in under 3 minutes with one of several basic strategies.

If you enjoy math problems like this, you would probably enjoy, and do well on, the GMAT test.  Contact Bobby Hood Test Prep to discuss the various class and tutoring options for the GMAT, both locally in Austin and online through The Princeton Review’s LiveOnline classrooms.

“Free Rein” vs. “A Monarch’s Reign”

The words rein and reign are homophones (they sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings). They are misused often in popular media (and in Facebook posts).

Reign refers to the rule of a monarch over a kingdom. It is usually used as a noun (“Queen Elizabeth II’s reign has lasted just over 61 years, as of last week”) or as a verb (“Queen Elizabeth II began her reign on February 6, 1952″).

Rein refers to the straps you hold when riding a horse to control speed and direction. It also functions as a noun (“Keep aholt of them reins, Hoss!”) or as a verb (” You better rein in those kids of yours before they get out of control.”)

The confusion often occurs because most people are unfamiliar with the word rein, and substitute reign into phrases that properly use the word rein instead, particularly into the phrase free rein.

Free rein is a phrase indicating that you have loosened your grip on the reins of a horse to allow free movement. Thus, employees (or kids) might think they have been given free rein while the boss (or parents) are away.

Often the phrase free rein is incorrectly phrased as free reign, which is a “non-standard” use and should be avoided. Free reign is an easy mistake to make, since rein and reign are homophones and, worse, because the phrase free reign seems to make sense at first glance. However, reign refers to the period of time when a monarch is in power, and generally a monarch has very strong control over the kingdom, and so the idea of giving free reign to a monarch doesn’t actually make sense.

A fun word to describe the mistake of using free reign rather than free rein is “eggcorn”. An eggcorn is a type of malapropism in which a non-standard phrase that results when a similar-sounding word is substituted for the correct word, resulting in a phrase that has a different meaning, but is still somewhat plausible.

Other examples of eggcorns: “mute point” for “moot point”, “shoe-in” for “shoo-in”, “peak my interest” for “pique my interest”, and so on. Just watch your Facebook wall and you’ll see them flow past every day. These are good examples of errors that, once seen, cannot be “unseen” for the rest of your life.

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, LSAT, MCAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

Myth: Never End a Sentence with a Preposition

There are many so-called grammatical “rules” that are simply myths. The rule that well-written English sentences should never end with a preposition is one that many self-appointed Grammar Guards insist on.

However, the rule against ending sentences with prepositions is a remnant of Latin grammar, and it robs the English language of the flexibility that makes it so effective to use in writing.

Of course, it’s always best to write simple, declarative sentences that end on a strong note, so this isn’t a tactic you should often avail yourself of. But it’s perfectly acceptable to do so, and not something to shy away from.

Otherwise, you might end up writing awkward sentences:

“Breaking Bad is a show I’m very fond of.”

versus

“Breaking Bad is a show of which I am very fond.”

If you’re writing a cover letter or a resume, you should probably avoiding ending sentences with prepositions, since the reader might not be aware that this supposed rule is simply a myth. But otherwise, feel free to let words flow as they may, and prepositions stay wherever they end up.

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

“Lie” vs. “Lay”

The difference between the verbs lie and lay can be very confusing, so it’s worth taking a look at the difference periodically to make sure you are using them correctly.

Of course, both words have multiple meanings, but the meaning that creates confusion is the “reclining / positioned flat” meaning.

The technical difference between the two is that the infinitive to lay is transitive, and so requires an object, while the infinitive to lie is intransitive, and does not take an object.

In PRESENT TENSE, you lay something down, while you or an object simply lie down.

Consider:

“Hang on a sec while I lay my iPad here on the table, then I can come lie down on the couch and watch Walking Dead with you.”

Now the iPad and the other technical gadgets lie lonesome on the table while you lie on the couch, and lay your hand on the remote control in case the show gets too scary and you need to pause it.

PAST TENSE makes it more complicated. In past tense, lay becomes laid, while lie becomes lay (!!!)

So, in past tense, the choice is between laid (past tense of to lay) and lay (past tense of to lie).

Consider:

“When she was about to turn on Walking Dead, I laid my iPad on the table and lay down on the couch to watch the show.”

Then the iPad and the other gadgets lay on the table while I laid my hand on the remote…

PERFECT TENSE sounds awkward with these verbs, regardless: “The iPad and the other gadgets have laid on the table for hours while I have lain on the couch watching Walking Dead.”

You can see confusion come up with these verbs all the time in literature and popular media:

The popular childhood prayer “Now I lay me down to sleep…” is technically correct (while you can lay yourself down, you can’t lay down in present tense).

Pop songs almost always get it wrong: “Lay Down Sally” (Eric Clapton) should be “Lie Down Sally” (unless he’s carrying her to  bed); “It’s Ecstasy when You Lay Down Next to Me” (Barry White) should be “It’s Ecstasy When You Lie Down Next to Me”, and so on. But Information Society (NERDS!) got it right with “Lay All Your Love on Me”.

The best way to remember it is to think for a second about all the ways lay is used in regular speech — “lay a bet”, “lay it on me”, “lay down the law”, “lay it on thick” — there’s always an object for the verb.

The phrases to try to eliminate from your speech and writing: “I’m gonna go lay down for a while” or “I’m gonna go lay out in the sun” (use “lie” instead, plus some sunscreen in the latter case).

The difference between lay and lie is tested on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood can be confusing to understand, but it’s actually very fun if used correctly.

The subjunctive mood is used to express things that aren’t (yet) true: desires, needs, purposes, suggestions, commands, or “counter-factual conditions” (lies).

In the subjunctive mood, you change the form of the verbs to indicate that the thing being discussed has not yet happened, or is a wish, desire, hypothetical, or command:

“After reading his Facebook updates, I suggested that he see a counselor to resolve some personal issues.”

  • Note that the verb form changes from sees to see — the simplest form of the verb.

“If I were Batman, I would use my powers for evil.”

  • Note that the verb form changes from was to were (and will to would) to indicate that this is only a hypothetical situation. Sadly.

“I demand that you be more respectful of my authori-tay.” (Loosely paraphrased from Eric Cartman.)

  • Note that the verb form changes from are to be (again, to express a desire). 

Knowing proper grammatical style can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

“If” vs. “Whether”

The distinction between if and whether is interesting and important, but not many people know or observe the distinction. However, using if and whether correctly is essential for clarity in writing and speaking.

The word if should be used only to introduce a conditional statement.

The word whether should be used when you are discussing a choice to be made.

Consider the difference between the following two sentences:

“I know that if I eat this large pizza with peppers and anchovies right before bed, I’ll probably have some strange dreams and feel bad tomorrow.”

“I can’t decide whether to eat this large pizza with peppers and anchovies, or just go straight to bed.”

In contrast, the incorrect usage would be to say “I can’t decide if I’m going to eat this large pizza…”

If you have trouble telling the difference, look to see if there’s a then to go with the if — is there a result that will happen if the if is fulfilled? If so, use if, and if you’re discussing a choice to be made, use whether.

Knowing the proper grammatical use of words can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact Bobby Hood Test Prep for more information!

“Affect” vs. “Effect”

In almost all cases, “affect” should be used as a verb, and “effect” should be used as a noun:

“A high SAT score can *affect* your chances of getting into the college you want, because it has the *effect* of making colleges rank your application highly.”

Part of the confusion with these two words comes from the fact that “effect” can be used as a verb in special cases, generally as part of the phrase “effect a change”:

“The student’s SAT tutoring is likely to *effect* a change in her chances of receiving a scholarship.”

And conversely, the word “affect” can be used as a noun in special cases to mean “the display of an emotional response”:

“One of the symptoms of severe depression is a flat *affect* — the failure to display emotion on one’s face in response to negative or positive events.”

Knowing the proper grammatical use of words can help you in daily life, in your professional life, and on the SAT, ACT, GMAT, and GRE. If you are planning to take any of these tests, contact me for more information!